#LucPaquin #Spirituality #Philosophy #Logos #WorkLifeBalance
Logos is a term used in western philosophy, psychology and rhetoric; it connotes an appeal to rational discourse that relies on inductive and deductive reasoning. Aristotle first systemised the usage of the word, making it one of the three principles of rhetoric alongside ethos and pathos. This specific use identifies the word closely to the structure and content of text itself. This specific usage has then been developed through the history of western philosophy and rhetoric.
I put in order, arrange, gather, choose, count, reckon, discern, say, speak. In modern usage, it typically connotes the verbs “Account”, “Measure”, “Reason” or “Discourse”. The word has also been used in different senses along with rhema. Both Plato and Aristotle used the term logos along with rhema to refer to sentences and propositions.
This logos holds always but humans always prove unable to ever understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep.
For Aristotle, logos is something more refined than the capacity to make private feelings public: it enables the human being to perform as no other animal can; it makes it possible for him to perceive and make clear to others through reasoned discourse the difference between what is advantageous and what is harmful, between what is just and what is unjust, and between what is good and what is evil.
Carl Jung contrasted the critical and rational faculties of logos with emotional, non-reason oriented and mythical elements. In Jung’s approach, logos vs eros can be represented as “Science vs Mysticism”, or “Reason vs Imagination” or “Conscious Activity vs The Unconscious”.
Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker’s topic. Furthermore, logos is credited with appealing to the audience’s sense of logic, with the definition of “Logic” being concerned with the thing as it is known.
Furthermore, one can appeal to this sense of logic in two ways. The first is through inductive reasoning, providing the audience with relevant examples and using them to point back to the overall statement. The second is through deductive enthymeme, providing the audience with general scenarios and then indicating commonalities among them.
Logos is the persuasive technique that aims to convince an audience by using logic and reason. Also called “The Logical Appeal”, logos examples in advertisement include the citation of statistics, facts, charts, and graphs. Ever told someone to “Listen To Reason” during an argument? This is what logos does. The best logos advertisement examples are when a speaker appeals to logic. Statistics, surveys, facts, and historical data can make a product seem like a more reasonable decision. Whether the data is sound or not is another story.
#LucPaquin #Spirituality #Philosophy #Pathos #WorkLifeBalance
Pathos is a Greek word meaning “Suffering” that has long been used to relay feelings of sadness or strong emotion. It was adopted into the English language in the 16th century to describe a quality that stirs the emotions, often produced by a real-life tragedy or moving music or speech.
Pathos became the foundation for many other English words.
- Empathy: The ability to understand and feel the emotions of others.
- Pathology: The study of disease, which can surely cause suffering.
- Pathetic: Something that causes others to feel pity.
- Sympathy: A shared feeling of sadness.
- Sociopath: Causing harm to society.
- Psychopath: Suffering in the mind.
We see Pathos in everyday life through rhetoric. Whether it’s family, friends or advertisers, people are constantly trying to persuade you of something by appealing to your emotions. However, you can also find Pathos in formal arguments, including famous speeches and political addresses.
Whenever someone tries to make you feel bad enough to do something, they’re using Pathos as a rhetorical tool. They can also use Pathos to explain how happy they would feel if you helped them out, or how hard it will be for them if you don’t.
If a political speech has ever made you feel inspired, angry or upset, it’s used Pathos correctly. Politicians and activists rely on appealing to their audience’s feelings to make them feel a certain way and to persuade them to do something.
Pathos is persuasive technique that try to convince an audience through emotions. Pathos advertisement techniques appeal to the senses, memory, nostalgia, or shared experience. Pathos examples pull at the heartstrings and make the audience feel. A quick way to appeal to a viewer’s emotions? A cute animal. A devastated family. A love story. Overcoming great odds.
#LucPaquin #Spirituality #Philosophy #Ethos #WorkLifeBalance
Ethos is a Greek word meaning “Character” that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology; and the balance between caution, and passion. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, behaviors, and even morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way. The word’s use in rhetoric is closely based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion. It gives credit to the speaker, or the speaker is taking credit. In modern usage, Ethos denotes the disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, corporation, culture, or movement. In Rhetoric, Aristotle establishes three primary modes of argument: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
Aristotle is credited with developing the basics of a system of rhetoric that “Thereafter Served As The Touchstone” of the discipline, influencing the development of rhetorical theory from ancient through modern times. Like the other works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity, the Rhetoric seems not to have been intended for publication, being instead a collection of his students’ notes in response to his lectures. This dialogue offered Aristotle, first a student and then a teacher at Plato’s Academy, a more positive starting point for the development of rhetoric as an art worthy of systematic, scientific study. In contrast to the emotional rhetoric and poetry of the sophists was a type of rhetoric grounded in philosophy and the pursuit of enlightenment.
In a sense, Ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience and it’s appealing to the audience’s emotions. Thus, it is the audience that determines whether a speaker is a high or a low Ethos speaker. Violations of Ethos include:
- The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate.
- The speaker has a vested interest or ulterior motive in the outcome of the debate.
- The speaker has no expertise.
This is broadly the function of Ethos in commercials.
- When an esteemed public figure endorses a product, it validates it to the end consumer.
- An Ethos advertisement plays off the consumer’s respect for a given spokesperson.
- Through that respect, the spokesperson appears convincing, authoritative and trustworthy enough to listen to. Of the types of persuasive techniques in advertising, Ethos is best used to unlock trust.
#Spirituality #Philosophy #Agnosticism #WorkLifeBalance
Agnosticism is the view or belief that the existence of God, of the divine or the Supernatural is unknown or unknowable. It can be categorized as an indifference or absence of firm beliefs in Theistic religions and Atheism on that basis. Another definition provided is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God exists or the belief that God does not exist.
Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims, particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, God’s, Deities, is unknown or possibly inherently unknowable. Some agnostics take a stronger view that the concept of a deity is incoherent, thus meaningless and irrelevant to life. The term is used to describe those who are unconvinced or noncommittal about the existence of deities as well as about other matters of religion. Early Christian church leaders used the Greek word gnosis knowledge to describe Spiritual Knowledge. Agnostic came from the union of it to the Greek / Latin prefix a, and was originally coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869 to describe his philosophy. Agnosticism is not to be confused with religious views opposing the doctrine of gnosis and Gnosticism, these are religious concepts that are not generally related to agnosticism.
Agnostics claim that either it is not possible to have absolute or certain knowledge that while certainty may be possible, they personally have no knowledge. Agnosticism in both cases involves some form of skepticism. Data collection services often display the common use of the term, distinct from atheism in its lack of disputing the existence of deities.
An agnostic is a person who has entertained the proposition that there is a God but believes neither that it is true nor that it is false. Not surprisingly, then, the term agnosticism is often defined, both in and outside of philosophy, not as a principle or any other sort of proposition but instead as the psychological state of being an agnostic. Call this the psychological sense of the term. It is certainly useful to have a term to refer to people who are neither theists nor atheists, but philosophers might wish that some other term besides agnostic theological skeptic were used.
#Spirituality #Philosophy #PhilosophyOfReligion #WorkLifeBalance
Philosophy Of Religion
Philosophy is the most critical and comprehensive thought process developed by human beings. It is quite different from religion in that where philosophy is both critical and comprehensive, religion is comprehensive but not necessarily critical. Religion attempts to offer a view of all of life and the universe and to offer answers to most, if not all, of the most basic and important questions which occur to humans all over the planet. The answers offered by religion are not often subject to the careful scrutiny of reason and logic. Indeed many religious beliefs defy logic and seem to be unreasonable. Religion has its basis in belief. Philosophy, on the other hand, is a critic of belief and belief systems. Philosophy subjects what some would be satisfied in believing to severe examination. Philosophy looks for rational explications and justifications for beliefs. Philosophy has its basis in reason.
Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion. It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents. The scope of much of the work done in philosophy of religion has been limited to the various theistic religions. More recent work often involves a broader, more global approach, taking into consideration both theistic and non-theistic religious traditions. The range of those engaged in the field of philosophy of religion is broad and diverse and includes philosophers from the analytic and continental traditions, Eastern and Western thinkers, religious believers and agnostics, skeptics and atheists. Philosophy of religion draws on all of the major areas of philosophy as well as other relevant fields, including theology, history, sociology, psychology, and the natural sciences.
The field is related to many other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. The philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief-system. It can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. In Asia include texts such as the Hindu Upanishads, the works of Daoism and Confucianism and Buddhist texts. Greek philosophies like Pythagoreanism and Stoicism included religious elements and theories about deities, and Medieval philosophy was strongly influenced by the big three monotheistic Abrahamic religions.
Some aspects of philosophy of religion have classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle’s Metaphysics, the necessarily prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, who, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. Philosophers have adopted the term “Philosophy Of Religion” for the subject, and typically it is regarded as a separate field of specialization as a part of metaphysics.
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The term “Atheist” describes a person who does not believe that God or a divine being exists. Worldwide there may be as many as a billion atheists, although social stigma, political pressure, and intolerance make accurate polling difficult. For the most part atheist and they have argued that the evidence in favor of God’s existence is too weak, or the arguments in favor of concluding there is no God are more compelling.
Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Despite the fuzzy definitions, researchers are beginning to home in on the factors that influence whether someone believes. According to this line of thinking, people with stronger analytical abilities are more likely to be nonbelievers, since belief in a higher power requires having faith in something that can’t be proven. The flip side of that argument is that believers may be more inclined toward intuitive thinking trusting their guts that a god exists, even in the absence of hard evidence.
Atheism is not an affirmative belief that there is no god nor does it answer any other question about what a person believes. It is simply a rejection of the assertion that there are gods. Atheism is too often defined incorrectly as a belief system. To be clear: Atheism is not a disbelief in gods or a denial of gods; it is a lack of belief in gods.
Atheism is not a belief system nor is it a religion. While there are some religions that are atheistic, that does not mean that atheism is a religion. To put it in a more humorous way: If atheism is a religion, then not collecting stamps is a hobby.
Despite the fact that atheism is not a religion, atheism is protected by many of the same Constitutional rights that protect religion. That, however, does not mean that atheism is itself a religion, only that our sincerely held lack of beliefs are protected in the same way as the religious beliefs of others.
Science is based on the observation that the universe is governed by natural laws that can be tested and replicated through experiment. It serves as a reliable, rational basis for predictions and engineering. Like scientists, scientific skeptics use critical thinking to decide claims. They do not base claims on faith or other unfalsifiable categories.
#Spirituality #Philosophy #BuddhistPhilosophy #WorkLifeBalance
Buddhism, philosophy that developed from the teachings of the Buddha, a teacher who lived in northern India between the mid-6th and mid-4th centuries BCE. Spreading from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, Buddhism has played a central role in the spiritual, cultural, and social life of Asia, and, beginning in the 20th century, it spread to the West. This entry concerns the historical individual, traditionally called Gautama, who is identified by modern scholars as the founder of Buddhism. According to Buddhist teachings, there have been other buddhas in the past, and there will be yet more in the future. The title “Buddha”, which literally means “Awakened”, is conferred on an individual who discovers the path to nirvana, the cessation of suffering, and propagates that discovery so that others may also achieve nirvana. This entry will follow modern scholarship in taking an agnostic stance on the question of whether there have been other buddhas, and likewise for questions concerning the superhuman status and powers that some Buddhists attribute to buddhas. The concern of this entry is just those aspects of the thought of the historical individual Gautama that bear on the development of the Buddhist philosophical tradition.
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering, that there is a cause of this suffering, it is possible to stop suffering, and there is a way to extinguish suffering. Eight fold Path as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right Resolve and Aspiration, right speech, right Action and Conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. In epistemology, the Buddha seeks a middle way between the extremes of dogmatism and skepticism, emphasizing personal experience, a pragmatic attitude, and the use of critical thinking toward all types of knowledge.
Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “Two Of The Most Powerful Forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy.
#Spirituality #Philosophy #Tyranny #Dictator #Totalitarianism #Fascism #WorkLifeBalance
Tyranny occurs when absolute power is granted to a ruler, cruel and oppressive government or rule. In a tyrannical government, the ruler becomes corrupt and uses his power to further his own interests instead of working for the common good. The rule of law is the principle that no one is exempt from the law, even those who are in a position of power.
A tyrant in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler who is unrestrained by law, or one who has usurped a legitimate ruler’s sovereignty. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their positions by resorting to repressive means. The original Greek term meant an absolute sovereign who came to power without constitutional right, yet the word had a neutral connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, Greek philosopher Plato saw tyrannos as a negative word, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique. The word originated as the title of a Roman dictator elected by the Roman Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency.
Like the term tyrant, and to a lesser degree autocrat, dictator came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. In modern usage the term dictator is generally used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties, proclamation of a state of emergency, rule by decree, repression of political opponents, not abiding by the procedures of the rule of law, and the existence of a cult of personality centered on the leader. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states.
Totalitarianism is a form of government and a political system that prohibits all opposition parties, outlaws individual and group opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high if not complete degree of control and regulation over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. In totalitarian states, political power is often held by autocrats, such as dictators and absolute monarchs, who employ all-encompassing campaigns in which propaganda is broadcast by state-controlled mass media in order to control the citizenry.
Totalitarian regimes are different from other authoritarian regimes, as the latter denotes a state in which the single power holder, usually an individual dictator, a committee, a military junta, or an otherwise small group of political elites, monopolizes political power. A totalitarian regime may attempt to control virtually all aspects of social life, including the economy, the education system, arts, science, and the private lives and morals of citizens through the use of an elaborate ideology. It can also mobilize the whole population in pursuit of its goals.
Fascism is a far-right, authoritarian, ultranationalist political ideology and movement, characterized by a dictatorial leader, centralized autocracy, militarism, forcible suppression of opposition, belief in a natural social hierarchy, subordination of individual interests for the perceived good of the nation and race, and strong regimentation of society and the economy.
Fascism rejects assertions that violence is inherently bad and views imperialism, political violence and war as means to national rejuvenation. Fascists often advocate for the establishment of a totalitarian one-party state, and for a dirigiste economy, with the principal goal of achieving national economic self-sufficiency through protectionist and economic interventionist policies. Fascism’s extreme authoritarianism and nationalism often manifests as belief in racial purity or a master race, usually blended with some variant of racism or bigotry against a demonized “Other”, such as Jews. These ideas have motivated fascist regimes to commit genocides, massacres, forced sterilizations, mass killings, and forced deportations.
Cult Of The Leader
- Julius Caesar
- John, King of England
- Henry VIII
- Oliver Cromwell
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- Adolf Hitler
- Benito Mussolini
- Joseph Stalin
- Mao Zedong
- Kim Il-sung
- Augusto Pinochet
- Alberto Fujimori
- Ferdinand Marcos
- Kim Jong-un
#Spirituality #Philosophy #Aphasia #Supernatural #WorkLifeBalance #SelfAwareness #SelfKnowledge #SelfTranscendence #PositiveMindset
What is Aphasia?
Aphasia is a communication impairment that affects all aspects of language, including speaking, understanding speech, reading, and writing. Imagine going to a foreign country where you do not speak the language, or you only remember a few words from your high school or college language course. You would have difficulty saying what you mean, understanding what others were saying to you, reading the language, and writing things down. This provides a little insight into what it might be like to have aphasia.
Aphasia is caused by a brain injury, typically due to stroke, traumatic brain injury, or some other illness. Depending on the exact location of the brain injury, aphasia can manifest itself in many different ways. Some people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding what is said to them and reading than they do speaking. Other people with aphasia have more difficulty saying what they want to say but understand much of what is said to them. Sometimes aphasia is more severe and affects understanding, speaking, reading and writing quite broadly.
What Causes Aphasia?
Aphasia is usually caused by a stroke or brain injury with damage to one or more parts of the brain that deal with language. According to the National Aphasia Association, about 25% to 40% of people who survive a stroke get aphasia.
Aphasia may also be caused by a brain tumor, brain infection, or dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease. In some cases, aphasia is a symptom of epilepsy or other neurological disorder.
What Are the Types of Aphasia?
There are types of aphasia. Each type can cause impairment that varies from mild to severe. Common types of aphasia include the following:
- Expressive aphasia (non-fluent): With expressive aphasia, the person knows what he or she wants to say, yet has difficulty communicating it to others. It doesn’t matter whether the person is trying to say or write what he or she is trying to communicate.
- Receptive aphasia (fluent): With receptive aphasia, the person can hear a voice or read the print, but may not understand the meaning of the message. Often times, someone with receptive aphasia takes language literally. Their own speech may be disturbed because they do not understand their own language.
- Anomic aphasia: With anomic aphasia, the person has word-finding difficulties. This is called anomia. Because of the difficulties, the person struggles to find the right words for speaking and writing.
- Global aphasia: This is the most severe type of aphasia. It is often seen right after someone has a stroke. With global aphasia, the person has difficulty speaking and understanding words. In addition, the person is unable to read or write.
- Primary progressive aphasia: Primary progressive aphasia is a rare disorder where people slowly lose their ability to talk, read, write, and comprehend what they hear in conversation over a period of time. With a stroke, aphasia may improve with proper therapy. There is no treatment to reverse primary progressive aphasia. People with primary progressive aphasia are able to communicate in ways other than speech. For instance, they might use gestures. And many benefit from a combination of speech therapy and medications.
- Aphasia may be mild or severe: With mild aphasia, the person may be able to converse, yet have trouble finding the right word or understanding complex conversations. Severe aphasia limits the person’s ability to communicate. The person may say little and may not participate in or understand any conversation.
I am been working on invention, innovation, expert, and consultant. Aphasia is a condition that robs you of the ability to communicate. It can affect your ability to speak. Aphasia typically occurs suddenly after a stroke or a head injury. He is stroke on September 2013. I could ever have a 2013-2016 is aphasia can understand language, but can’t speak. Although has this problem he has been working with various electronic projects, 3D animation, photography, video, art, jewelry, painting, digital prints, food, drink since then.
#Spirituality #Philosophy #PhilosophyElitism #Elitism #Supernatural #WorkLifeBalance #SelfAwareness #SelfKnowledge #SelfTranscendence #PositiveMindset
Philosophy and Elitism
While the concept of populism has been one of the most used and most contested social science concepts in recent years, the concept of elitism still is strangely underspecified. Yet even in the debate centering solely on populism, the idea that there is a significant other, a counterpart that populism is up against and vice versa, is clearly gaining ground breeding notions of anti-populism, technocracy, technocratic populism and the like.
Essentially, the arguments for this refusal were based on the following, the functioning of the capitalist state must be explained based on the objective links between this political institution and class structure, whoever controls, manages and occupies the main nodes of power within the state apparatus, the bureaucracy, regardless of social origin, faith or specific motivations, has no choice but to reproduce the objective function of the state, which consists of maintaining the social cohesion of a given social formation this is equally valid for any type of political regime, bourgeois democracy, military dictatorship, fascism, authoritarianism, in which those in command of the political administration of the state are sensibly different.
Again in both cases, this prevailing negative judgment has a point but is somewhat premature at the same time. Representative democracy, I argue, is inconceivable without political elites. And it would probably be much worse without the continuous reminder of the promise of democracy which populism provides. The pathologies entailed in both cases come with the inherent tendency to overstretch one aspect of democracy at the expense of others.
Elitism is the belief or notion that individuals who form an elite, a select group of people perceived as having an intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, power, notability, special skills, or experience, are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others. The term elitism may be used to describe a situation in which power is concentrated in the hands of a limited number of people.
In political and sociological theory, the elite are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a group. This group includes bureaucratic, corporate, intellectual, military, media, and government elites who control the principal institutions and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers. The basis for membership of a power elite is institutional power, namely an influential position within a prominent private or public organization.
The elitism is historically associated with hereditary or ruling social class. In many states, the elitism included the upper class of people with hereditary rank and titles. Term elitism is sometimes also applied to other elites, and is used as a more generic term when describing earlier societies. Upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, usually are the wealthiest members of class society, and wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the upper class is generally distinguished by immense wealth which is passed on from generation to generation.
Because the upper classes of a society may no longer rule the society in which they are living, they are often referred to as the old upper classes, and they are often culturally distinct from the newly rich middle classes that tend to dominate public life in modern social democracies. According to the latter view held by the traditional upper classes, no amount of individual wealth or fame would make a person from an undistinguished background into a member of the upper class as one must be born into a family of that class and raised in a particular manner to understand and share upper class values, traditions, and cultural norms.