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The First Opium War was a series of military engagements fought between the British Empire and the Qing dynasty of China between 1839 and 1842. The immediate issue was the Chinese enforcement of their ban on the opium trade by seizing private opium stocks from merchants at Canton and threatening to impose the death penalty for future offenders. After months of tensions between the two states, the British navy launched an expedition in June 1840, which ultimately defeated the Chinese using technologically superior ships and weapons by August 1842. The British then imposed the Treaty of Nanking, which forced China to increase foreign trade, give compensation, and cede Hong Kong to the British.
In Hong Kong in Jingyi Shia-bao Mandarins were selected by merit through the extremely rigorous imperial examination. The mandarins were replaced with a modern civil service after the fall of the Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, the governor of a Chinese province was signified by wearing a mandarin hat-pin made of ruby. The lower ranks of mandarins were signified by hat-pins made of coral, sapphire, lapis lazuli, white jade, gold, and silver.
European merchants were required to pay customs fees, measurement duties, provide gifts, and hire navigators. In addition, the colonisation and conquest of the Americas resulted in European nations (namely Spain, Great Britain, and France) gaining access to a cheap supply of silver, resulting in European economies remaining relatively stable despite the trade deficit with China. This silver was also shipped across the Pacific Ocean to China directly, notably through the Spanish-controlled Philippines. In stark contrast to the European situation, Qing China sustained a trade surplus. Foreign silver flooded into China in exchange for Chinese goods, expanding the Chinese economy but also causing inflation and forming a Chinese reliance on European silver. This gradual effect was greatly exacerbated by a series of large-scale colonial wars between Great Britain and Spain in the mid 18th century; these conflicts disrupted the international silver market and eventually resulted in the independence of powerful new nations, namely the United States and Mexico.
Butler Jingyi Shia-bao
Languages Spoken and Written: English, Chinese, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, Arabic, Persian, German, Russian, Turkish, Hindi, Japanese, and Korean.
A butler is a person who works in a house serving and is a domestic worker in a large household. In great houses, the household is sometimes divided into departments with the butler in charge of the dining room, wine cellar, and pantry. Some also have charge of the entire parlour floor and housekeepers caring for the entire house and its appearance. The butler has the highest servant status.
One of the most important responsibilities is hosting. A butler should answer calls to the household phone, greet guests at the door, assist in the planning of events and dinner parties, oversee table settings, and serve drinks and food. They will also manage the wine cellar. Additionally, a butler may have responsibility over other staff. This could extend to training new staff members, organizing the payroll and the staff schedule, and hiring and firing.
Responsibilities include maintaining sleeping quarters, inventorying personal items and accessories, grooming, packing/unpacking for travel, and light housekeeping. The butler is generally expected to handle all the unpredictable needs of the household. He pays the household bills, books medical appointments, and helps arrange social and family events. They deal with vendors and pre-empt maintenance issues to ensure the smooth running of the household.
It’s best to think of a butler as a management position, having many of the same skills a manager in any field requires. These may include excellent communication, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills, organizational and management skills, and an ability to multitask, in addition to some that are unique to the role of the butler, such as discretion, meticulous attention to detail, and food and wine pairings.
A butler will be well-versed in etiquette and serving and have a thorough understanding of formal home care. In many cases, he may speak several languages.
Angélica Enthyero and Jingyi Shia-bao